What is semen madeWhat is semen made of? Firstly, it should be noted that semen consists not only of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa make up only a small part of the total volume of sperm. The main component of the semen is the semen volume (that is why semen volume pills are primarily aimed at increasing the production of seminal fluid). In this article, we will examine in detail all the components of sperm.

What is semen made of – seminal fluid

1. Proteins. The prostate gland, together with the seminal vesicles, produces specific protein compounds that instantly turn into amino acids under the action of enzymes during ejaculation. Among the main amino acids that are released from proteins, the main ones are: glutamic acid, serine, lysine, L-leucine (one of the BACA amino acids), glycine, tyrosine. The content of amino acids in sperm averages 0.0125 g in 1 milliliter. In addition to proteins and amino acids, seminal plasma contains other substances such as choline, spermidine, and spermine in large quantities.
2. Carbohydrates. Carbs in the seminal fluid are in a free state. They can also be associated with proteins. The largest part of the free carbohydrates is fructose, which affects the activity of spermatozoa, and to be more precise, it is the source of energy for the movement of male sex cells. In a healthy male, the amount of fructose in the seminal fluid is 1-5 mg / ml. Higher levels indicate the presence of diabetes, and lower rates may be a sign of a prostatic ailment. The composition of the seminal plasma includes other free carbohydrates: sorbitol, glucose, ribose, and others. Also the semen contains a specific substance – inositol – which is included in the structure of cell membranes and is a source of energy for spermatozoa.
3. Fats. Seminal fluid contains such fats as phospholipids and cholesterol, fatty acids. The total concentration of cholesterol averages 0.5 mg/ml, it is produced by the prostate gland.
Prostaglandins that are “manufactured” from fatty acids play an important role in the reproductive function of the male body. The high concentration of fatty acids in seminal plasma and the sensitivity of the female uterus to them during ovulation play a positive role in the process of fertilization. Some medications (e.g., aspirin) worsen the production of prostaglandins, which reduces the fertilizing ability of semen.
4. Enzymes. The liquefaction of sperm after ejaculation occurs due to the active participation of protein-depleting enzymes. In the first 10-20 min, liquefaction develops rapidly, and then during the 1st hour a gradual and much less pronounced decrease in the viscosity of the ejaculate continues. Male infertility can be caused by a lack of enzymes, since sperm remains in viscous consistency hampering the progress of spermatozoa. In addition to protein-degrading enzymes, hydrolytic (glucosidases, acid phosphatase, maltase) and oxidizing ones (lactate dehydrogenase, dehydrogenase) are contained in the human semen.
5. Minerals. Seminal plasma contains sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium. The concentration of zinc is also very high, which is of great importance for intellectual activity. The main amount of zinc comes from the prostate gland.
6. Other substances. An important substance in the seminal fluid is citric acid, produced by the prostate gland. The presence of citric acid is necessary for the process of liquefaction of seminal fluid. In addition, the seminal fluid contains some hormones, including testosterone.

What is semen made of – spermatozoa

Spermatozoon is a male reproductive cell that forms in the tubules of the testes. Spermatozoa are very small in size. If we do not take into account the length of their tail, they are the smallest among all the cells in the human body. The small size of spermatozoa is caused by the need to cover relatively large distances in order to find a female egg.

The male sex cell consists of a head, neck, middle part and tail. In the front part of the oval head is the so-called acrosome, which contains the enzymes necessary to dissolve the eggshell. Behind the acrosome is a nucleus, which includes 23 chromosomes of a man, which combine with the 23 chromosomes of the female ovum during conceiving.